What is Kubernetes (K8s)? A Kubernetes Basics Tutorial

What is Kubernetes? 

Kubernetes (pronounced Kuh-BERN-notes) is a platform for creating and running distributed systems. It provides platform infrastructure, tools, and API services to facilitate the creation of microservices in a team or on-demand from clients. Kubernetes automates many functions that were previously required to maintain separate, private sub-projects for each type of service. Because Kubernetes is open-source and designed for continuous improvement, it has the potential to achieve much more than any single solution could ever provide.

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Kubernetes Basic Terms 


The pod is the lowest level deployment unit in Kubernetes which makes it ideal for creating new applications. Pod are standalone containers that are not bound to any specific node hence are more portable.


A service is a Kubernetes object which exposes a set of Pods and is created and deleted as of a single object. The Service object can be used for access to services provided by Pods. Services should only create new connections to other services or hosts in the cluster…


A volume is a file system object specifically designed for sharing between multiple containers.


A namespace is an awesome way to keep your Kubernetes cluster organized and clean without the hassle.


A ReplicaSet manages a group of identical ReplicaSets.


Deployment is the operation that copies resources from one or more source configurations push them into a new namespace, and applies the desired state described by the user.


StatefulSet configures an application-wide virtual IP address and port mappings for its Pods. This is useful when you want to access pods by name within your cluster, without needing to know the actual node on which they run.

Daemon set 

A daemonset is a Kubernetes construct that works similarly to a Pod. It does not run any applications but instead runs one or more full system processes on the node. They can be useful for running services like monitoring agents, log collectors, and other things that do not fit inside a pod. The advantage of Daemonsets is that they can be easily re-deployed by changing the config of the DaemonSet and not having to recreate and re-provision an entire pod (can take around 10 minutes).


Jobs are used to managing sets of tasks, called pods that have the same lifecycle. This includes items such as creating a pod, waiting for it to be ready, and then performing a task on it. Jobs work by binding a pod template to a set of pods through a controller manager.

Kubernetes Architecture and Components 

K8s is a unique and powerful technology and as such, it has unique and powerful components which you can use to deliver your applications at high velocity and scale. Elasticsearch is one of those components.

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Master Components

Kubernetes-API server 

Kubernetes-API server is a free, open-source, distributed Kubernetes cluster manager. Designed to work with a wide array of programming languages and cloud providers, Kube-apiserver allows clusters to be managed with a command-line interface. With Kube-apiserver you can spin up new clusters in just a few clicks, and automatically connect existing clusters with other workloads when starting or replacing a cluster. The simplicity of the API and managed cluster operations make it easy to get started with Kubernetes-based applications and services.


Etcd, the underlying cluster software as well as all the services provided by this cluster are available at a bare-bones cost when running on a physical cluster. This means that you can bring in additional hardware as needed without having to worry about having physical servers sitting around that don’t need to be maintained. It is also a key aspect of how these services are provided to your customers. While the underlying cluster services are provided on each physical server, it is only after these services are deployed and started up that they can be seen by end-users.


Kube-scheduler is a free and open-source tool for scheduling jobs on EC2, Microsoft’s Cloud-based platform for applications and infrastructure-as-a-service (aaS). Kube-scheduler allows you to schedule jobs so that they run on a specific day, at a specific time, or a specific frequency, and it provides you with an estimate of how long each job will take and a completion time. You can use it to schedule backend jobs in your favorite programming language (js, python, or ruby), custom backends (e.g., MySQL), or webhooks triggered by different events.


Kube-controller-manager helps you to keep track of your containers, create new ones and launch them instantly. It provides a declarative programming model for data storage and allows applications to be created and deployed using a simple API. The manager contains the application logic and serves as a bridge between application developers and the rest of the cloud infrastructure. KCM enables the seamless integration of multiple application servers into a single infrastructure.


Cloud-Controller-Manager (CCM) is a system of tools and services to help you grow your business in the cloud. It provides all the essential cloud infrastructure services you need to build, manage, and distribute applications across your data centers. With CCM, you can utilize your existing infrastructure and do more with less spending. The result is easier application delivery, lower costs for high-traffic applications, and flexible subscription services that offer powerful business tools to help you grow your business while reducing costs to your business.

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Node Components


Kubelet is a decentralized marketplace using blockchain technology. It is designed to be a democratizing force by removing the intermediaries between buyers and sellers. Through the use of smart contracts and IoT technology, Kubelet allows any person or marketplace to create, own and manage their marketplace without needing any technical knowledge. Using the Ethereum network, buyers and sellers interact directly without needing an IPO or any kind of middleman involvement.


Kube-proxy is a free, open-source, zero-knowledge web server that allows you to proxy any web server you want on your localhost interface. It provides an efficient and transparent way to handle your SSH connections, as well as an easy way to serve static files from your localhost server. The major advantage it has over similar services is that you can run multiple instances of it on different machines simultaneously without having to trust any instance with your sensitive data.

Container Runtime

A container runtime is a software component that provides fixed runtimes to applications written in Java or any other JVM language. A container runtime is installed alongside an application and serves as its primary interface (interface definition in the Java specification). When two applications use the same interface, they typically share the same runtime as well. A container runtime is typically associated with a specific operating system and architecture, though it may be provided by a different provider for other platforms.

Benefits of Kubernetes 

  • Kubernetes provides a new model for data center infrastructure and cloud-based application platforms. In addition to achieving new heights in terms of reliability, scalability, and maintainability, Kubernetes-based cloud applications have the potential to achieve new heights in terms of application quality and customizability. Promises are made, code is migrated and data is replicated with efficiency unmatched by competing for private cloud solutions. The primary benefits of getting involved with Kubernetes are
  • Scalability – As the platform continues to grow and mature, it’ll continue to scale better and more easily. 
  • Availability – Unlike other in-house solutions, Kubernetes clusters can be built and provisioned in a matter of minutes. This allows for faster response to trawlers and as a result more time in maintaining high availability. 
  • Robust Infrastructure – We’ve deployed production-grade applications on Kubernetes and been Achievement USV – 100% reliable.

Disadvantages of Kubernetes 

There are several disadvantages to using Kubernetes. First, it is not yet transparent how it will manage your data. You can lose your data with a small mistake and it will take so long to bring it back. Second, it is not possible to restore an earlier working version of your cluster if something goes wrong. Finally, there are some known implementation problems with some features of Kubernetes (e.g., replicating snapshots across clusters) and these have not been addressed in the current (2017-08-23) release.

Kubernetes Competitors

There are dozens of available Kubernetes-based cloud computing platforms, and each has its strengths and weaknesses. You should evaluate each platform primarily based on the capabilities it provides and how well it complements your applications. Platform support, ease of deployment, productivity, and data availability are all important factors to consider when selecting a Kubernetes-based cloud platform. While some of these platforms are designed for specific applications, others are more general-purpose and may be best suited to your business needs.

How to Install Kubernetes 

Installing Kubernetes on your local machine is easy. First, you need a developer account and a private key. You can obtain these by registering for a free account with the Website Owners Forum. From there you can follow the instructions for creating a configuration file and then creating a Kubernetes configuration.

Deploying your First Containerization to Minikube 

The application deployment process can be abstracted into a series of steps with clear expectations and understood outcomes. Each step has been designed to be as straightforward as possible while also making it pleasurable and easy to get better at. It’s the type of complexity that people who dislike big projects can get behind because it’s a challenge they can get involved with. Containerization breaks down the monolithic nature of applications, allowing you to quickly spin up new ones without having to worry about whether they’re working correctly or even making sense.

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