What is Cyber Security A beginner’s Guide

What is Cyber Security? A Beginner’s Guide.

What is Cyber Security?

Cyber Security is the act of defending PCs, servers, cell phones, electronic frameworks, mobile devices, and data from malicious assaults. It is also known as information security or electronic information security. The term applies in a variety of settings, from business to mobile computing, and can be divided into a couple of general categories.

  1. Network security
  2. Application security
  3. Information security 
  4. Operational security
  5. End-user education 

Network Security 

Network security is a practice designed to secure the use and integrity of your computer network,& data.

  • This involves both hardware and software 
  • It targets a number of threats
  • This prevents them from entering or spreading your network
  • Efficient network security manages access to the network

Application Security

Focuses on keeping software and tools safe. A compromised application may provide access to the data for which it is designed. Successfully begins the security design phase before deploying a program or device.

Information security 

Protects data integrity and its privacy, both in storage and transit.

Operational Security

Includes protecting actions and decisions to deal with and protect data assets.  The permissions that users have when accessing a network and the process that determines how and where data can be stored or shared under this umbrella.

End-User Education 

The most unexpected cybersecurity element: people. Anyone who accidentally fails to follow good security practices can accidentally introduce the virus into another security system. Teaching users important lessons for deleting suspicious email attachments, not plugging into unrecognized USB drives, and many more about the security of any organization.

Types of cyber threats

The risks posed by cybersecurity are threefold:

  1. Cybercrime
  2. Cyberattack
  3. Cyber terrorism 


Involves an actor or group that targets systems for financial gain or disruption.


Frequently includes gathering politically motivated information.

Cyber terrorism

To weaken the electronic system to spread panic. So, how can malicious actors gain authority over the computer system? some general steps used to threaten cybersecurity.


Malware is malicious software. One of the biggest cyber threats is malware, software designed by cybercriminals or hackers to disrupt or damage a legitimate user’s computer is called malware There are several types of malware, such as:

  • Virus

Self-replicating programs that attach themselves to legitimate programs on the victim’s machine to clean files After, when infected programs are transferred to another computer and run, the virus attaches itself to other programs on those machines. The virus sends now via email, primarily with infected attachments

  • Trojan

A type of malware(non-self replicating program) disguised as legitimate software. Cybercriminals force users to upload Trojans to their computers where they cause harm or collect user data. Types of trojan include: Keystroke logger, Proxy trojans, DDoS Zombies, and RAT.

  • Spyware

Spyware is a program that secretly records user activities so that cybercriminals can use this information. For example, spyware can capture credit card information.

  • Ransomware

Ransomware is a type of malicious software created to block access to a victim’s computer system unless a ransom is paid.

  • Adware

Adware unwanted programs will tend to serve you pop-up ads that can spread malware

  • Botnets

A network of “proprietary” machines (bots). Usually controlled via IRC protocol or P2P network. Used to spread spam mail, and launch DDoS attacks. Phishing too,

SQL injection

SQL means (structure language query) injection is a type of cyber attack that is used to access sensitive information and steal data from a database. Cybercriminals exploit weaknesses in data-driven applications to insert malicious code into databases through malicious SQL statements.

DOS attack

DOS Attack stands for Denial -of -services attack is where criminals block a computer system from fulfilling legitimate requests by flooding traffic on networks and servers.

Here are Some latest cyber threats reported by the US, UK, and Australia 

  1. Dridex malware(2019)
  2. Romance scams(Feb 2020)
  3. Emotet malware(2019)

End-User protection 

End-user protection or endpoint security is an important aspect of cybersecurity. However, it is often an individual (end-user) who accidentally uploads other forms of malware or cyber threat to their desktop, laptop, and mobile device.

So, how do cybersecurity measures protect end-users and systems? First, cybersecurity relies on cryptographic protocols to encrypt emails, files, and other important data. It not only protects transportation information but also prevents damage or theft.

Protect yourself against cyberattacks

Here are some security tips

  1. Update your software & operating system
  2. Use anti-virus software
  3. Avoid using unsafe Wi-Fi networks in public places for sharing confidential information
  4. Do not open spam email attachments from unknown senders
  5. Do not click on links to unnecessary websites

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